Maternal and Child Health Research Program

Advancing Applied MCH Research

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The Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network.

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Project Number: R60 MC 05674-05
Grantee: American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologist
Department/Center: Department of Research
Project Date: 7/1/1990

Final Report


Principal Investigator

Jay Schulkin, Ph.D.
Director of Research
409 12th Street, S.W.
Washington, DC  20024-2188
Phone: (202) 863-2504 x 2550


  • Maternal
  • Prenatal


Obstetrician-gynecologists are the principal healthcare providers for women during pregnancy and the perinatal period. In addition, an increasing number of obstetrician-gynecologists are changing their practices to take on a more primary care role. Approximately one-in-five office visits to obstetrician-gynecologists can be classed as primary care. This change requires an increasing awareness about diagnosis and management of a broad array of women's health issues which traditionally were the purview of primary care physicians and other specialists. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) produces a wide range of educational materials for its Fellows to address this additional required knowledge. The Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (CARN) comprises the only existing national collective of practicing obstetrician-gynecologists who have been recruited to participate in survey studies. CARN membership is made up of over 1,100 Fellows of ACOG who practice in a variety of ambulatory care settings throughout the United States. One function of the CARN is to inform and evaluate the College's efforts to provide guidance on clinical practice to its Fellows by tracking obstetrician-gynecologists' knowledge and clinical practices on a wide range of clinical issues and comparing existing practices with that supported by evidence-based guidelines. The CARN provides a mechanism for collecting normative data that can be used to develop standards and guidelines to improve patient health, and allows researchers, educators and policy-makers to track longitudinal changes in medical practice patterns. CARN studies, using mailed questionnaire surveys, will continue as the foundation of the project. These surveys will specifically address such issues as: knowledge and use of diagnostic criteria, screening tools and treatments, practice patterns regarding patient education and referrals to other health professionals, and knowledge and attitudes concerning the importance of the disease/topic to their practice. Evidence-based documents from ACOG often will be used as the basis for the surveys.


Listed is descending order by year published.

Please visit the Grantee's Publication web site for a complete list of Publications. Exit Disclaimer

Leddy M, Haaga D, Gray J, Schulkin J. Postpartum mental health screening and diagnosis by obstetrician-gynecologists. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Mar;32(1):27-34.

Anderson BL, Dang EP, Floyd, RL, Sokol R, Mahoney J, Schulkin J. Knowledge, opinions, and practice patterns of obstetrician-gynecologists regarding their patients' use of alcohol. J Addiction Med. 2010 Jun;4(2):114-21.

Anderson BL, Strunk A, Schulkin J. Study on defensive medicine practices among obstetricians and gynecologists who provide breast care. J Healthc Qual. 2010 Nov 11.

Cogswell ME, Power ML, Sharma AJ, Schulkin J. Prevention and management of obesity in nonpregnant women and adolescents: beliefs and practices of US obstetricians and gynecologists. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010 Sept;19(9):1625-34.

Coleman-Cowger VH, Erickson K, Spong CY, Portnoy B, Croswell J, Schulkin J. Current practice of cesarean delivery on maternal request following 2006 state-of-the-science conference. J Reprod Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):25-30.

Dalton VK, Harris LH, Gold KJ, Kane-Low L, Schulkin J, Guire K, Fendrick AM. Provider knowledge, attitudes, and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jun;202(6):531.e1-8. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Einarsson JI, Matteson KA, Schulkin J, Chavan NR, Sangi-Haghpeykar H. Minimally invasive hysterectomies: a survey on attitudes and barriers among practicing gynecologists. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2010 Mar-Apr;17(2):167-75.

Funk C, Anderson BL, Schulkin J, Weinstein L. Survey of obstetric and gynecologic hospitalists and laborists. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug;203(2):177.e1-4. Epub 2010 Jun 26.

Jones JL, Krueger A, Schulkin J, Schantz PM. Toxoplasmosis prevention and testing in pregnancy, survey of obstetrician-gynaecologists. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010 Feb;57(1):27-33.

Leddy MA, Gonik B, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and perinatal infections: a review of studies of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network (2005-2009). Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2010;2010:583950. Epub 2010 Nov 11.

Matteson KA, Anderson BL, Pinto SB, Lopes V, Schulkin J, Clark MA.. Surveying ourselves: examining the use of a web-based approach for a physician survey. Eval Health Prof. 2010 Dec 29.

Menzin AW, Anderson BL, Williams SB, Schulkin J. Education and experience with breast health maintenance and breast cancer care: a survey of obstetricians and gynecologists. J Cancer Educ. 2010 Mar;25(1):87-91.

Morgan MA, Lawrence H 3rd, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' approach to well-woman care. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Sep;116(3):715-22.

Rayburn WF, Anderson BL, Johnson JV, McReynolds MA, Schulkin J.Trends in the academic workforce of obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;115(1):141-6.

Silverman GK, Loewenstein GF, Anderson BL, Ubel PA, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Failure to discount for conflict of interest when evaluating medical literature: a randomized trial of physicians. J Med Ethics. 2010 May;36(5):265-70.

Verani JR, Montgomery SP, Schulkin J, Anderson B, Jones JL. Survey of obstetrician-gynecologists in the United States about Chagas disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Oct;83(4):891-5.

Anderson B, Stumpf PG, Schulkin J. Medical error reporting, patient safety, and the physician. J Patient Saf. 2009 Sep;5(3):176-9.

Anderson BL, Juliano LM, Schulkin J. Caffeine's implications for women's health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists' caffeine knowledge and assessment practices. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Sep;18(9):1457-66.

Anderson BL, Silverman GK, Loewenstein GF, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Factors associated with physicians' reliance on pharmaceutical sales representatives. Acad Med. 2009 Aug;84(8):994-1002.

Coleman VH, Morgan MA, Carlson R, Hawks D, Schulkin J. Patient perceptions of obstetrician-gynecologists' practices related to HIV testing. Matern Child Health J. 2009 May;13(3):355-63.

Coleman VH, Morgan MA, Carlson R, Hawks D, Schulkin J. Patient perceptions of obstetrician-gynecologists' practices related to HIV testing. Matern Child Health J. 2009 May;13(3):355-63. Epub 2008 Jun 10.

Driscoll DA, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Screening for Down syndrome: changing practice of obstetricians. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Apr;200(4):459.e1-9.

Goldstein LS, Chapin JL, Lara-Torre E, Schulkin J. The care of adolescents by obstetrician-gynecologists: a first look. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009 Apr;22(2):121-8.

Henderson ZT, Power ML, Berghella V, Lackritz EM, Schulkin J. Attitudes and practices regarding use of progesterone to prevent preterm births. Am J Perinatol. 2009 Aug;26(7):529-36.

Leddy MA, Anderson BL, Gall S, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and the HPV vaccine: practice patterns, beliefs, and knowledge. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2009 Aug;22(4):239-46.

Leddy MA, Gonik B, Gall SA, Anderson B, Schulkin J. Changes in immunization practices, knowledge and beliefs of Michigan obstetrician-gynecologists since 2000. Mich J Public Health. 2009 Winter;3(1):20-32.

Leddy MA, Jones C, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Eating disorders and obstetric-gynecologic care. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Sep;18(9):1395-401.

Morgan MA, Crall J, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Oral health during pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;22(9):733-739.

Power ML, Anderson BL, Schulkin J. Attitudes of obstetrician-gynecologists toward the evidence from the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials remain generally skeptical. Menopause. 2009 May-Jun;16(3):500-8.

Power ML, Cogswell ME, Schulkin J. US obstetrician-gynaecologist's prevention and management of obesity in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Jul;29(5):373-7.

Power ML, Leddy MA, Anderson BL, Gall SA, Gonik B, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and perceived knowledge regarding immunization. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Sep;37(3):231-4.

Ross DS, Rasmussen SA, Cannon MJ, et al. Obstetrician/gynecologists' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention of infections in pregnancy. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Aug;18(8):1187-93.

Stumpf PG, Anderson BL, Lawrence H, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' opinions about patient safety: costs and liability remain problems; are mandated reports a solution? Womens Health Issues. 2009 Jan-Feb;19(1):8-13.

Anderson B, Schulkin J, Ross DS, Rasmussen SA, Jones JL, Cannon M.J; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Knowledge and practices of obstetricians and gynecologists regarding cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy--United States, 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Jan 25;57(3):65-8.

Anderson BL, Hale RW, Salsberg E, Schulkin J. Outlook for the future of the obstetrician-gynecologist workforce. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul;199(1):88.e1-8. Epub 2008 May 23.

Coleman VH, Carter MM, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' screening patterns for anxiety during pregnancy. Depress Anxiety. 2008;25(2):114-23.

Coleman VH, Carter MM, Morgan MA, Schulkin J. United States obstetrician-gynecologists' accuracy in the simulation of diagnosing anxiety disorders and depression during pregnancy. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol. 2008 Sep;29(3):173-84.

Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practices regarding preterm birth at the limit of viability. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008 Feb;21(2):115-21.

Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' practices regarding preterm birth at the limit of viability. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2008 Feb;21(2):115-21.

Morgan MA, Goldenberg RL, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists' screening and management of preterm birth. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jul;112(1):35-41.

Power M, Baron J, Schulkin J. Factors associated with obstetrician-gynecologists' response to the women's health initiative trial of combined hormone therapy. Med Decis Making. 2008 May-Jun;28(3):411-8. Epub 2008 May 13.

Van Beneden CA, Hicks LA, Riley LE, Schulkin J. Provider knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding obstetric and postsurgical gynecologic infections due to group A streptococcus and other infectious agents. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2007;2007:90189.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Cesarean delivery on maternal request. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov;110(5):1209-12.

Cleary-Goldman J, Bettes B, Robinson JN, Norwitz E, D'Alton ME, Schulkin J. Postterm pregnancy: practice patterns of contemporary obstetricians and gynecologists. Am J Perinatol. 2006 Jan;23(1):15-20.

Cleary-Goldman J, Morgan MA, Malone FD, Robinson JN, D'Alton ME, Schulkin J. Screening for Down Syndrome: practice patterns and knowledge of obstetricians and gynecologists. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jan;107(1):11-7.

Morgan MA, Schulkin J. Obstetrician-gynecologists and self-identified depression: personal and clinical. Depress Anxiety. 2006;23(2):83-9.

Coleman VH, Morgan MA, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Clinical approach to mental health issues among obstetrician-gynecologists: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2006 Jan;61(1):51-8.

Morgan MA, Hankins GD, Zinberg S, Schulkin J. Neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy revisited: the current state of knowledge and the impact of american college of obstetricians and gynecologists task force report. J Perinatol. 2005 Aug;25(8):519-25.


Pregnancy, Primary Care, Clinical Practice, Labor & Delivery, Preterm, Screening, Health Education & Family Support

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