U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration

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Neonatal and Postneonatal Mortality

Neonatal. In 2007, 19,058 infants died before reaching 28 days of age, representing a neonatal mortality rate of 4.4 deaths per 1,000 live births. Although this is a slightly lower rate than the previous year (4.5 per 1,000), the change
was not statistically significant.

Neonatal mortality is generally related to short gestation and low birth weight, congenital malformations, and conditions originating in the perinatal period, such as birth trauma or infection.

Neonatal mortality rates vary by race and ethnicity. In 2007, the neonatal mortality rate among infants born to non-Hispanic Black women was 9.0 per 1,000 live births, more than twice the rate among infants born to non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women (3.6 and 3.8 per 1,000, respectively).

Postneonatal. In 2007, 10,080 infants died between the ages of 28 days and 1 year, representing a postneonatal mortality rate of 2.3 deaths per 1,000 live births. This is slightly higher than the rate of 2.2 deaths per 1,000 reported
in 2006.

Postneonatal mortality is generally related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), congenital malformations, and unintentional injuries. Postneonatal mortality varies by race and ethnicity. In 2007, the highest rate of postneonatal mortality was reported among infants born to non-Hispanic Black women (4.8 per 1,000). Rates for infants born to non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women

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