Neonatal and Postneonatal Mortality
Neonatal. In 2005, 18,770 infants died before reaching 28 days of age, representing a neonatal mortality rate of 4.5 deaths per 1,000 live births. Statistically, this rate is unchanged from the previous year.
Neonatal mortality is generally related to short gestation and low birth weight, congenital malformations, and conditions occurring in the perinatal period.
Postneonatal. In 2005, 9,670 infants between the ages of 28 days and 1 year died, representing a postneonatal mortality rate of approximately 2.3 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate represents a 3 percent increase over the previous year. Postneonatal mortality is generally related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), congenital malformations, and unintentional injuries.
Neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates vary by maternal race and ethnicity; in 2005, rates were highest among infants born to non-Hispanic Black women (9.4 and 4.9 per 1,000 live births, respectively). Both of these rates are more than twice the respective rates of infants born to non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women.